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Do SGLT-2 Inhibitors Change Fat Metabolism?

sharma-obesity-blood-sugar-testing2Since the introduction of SGLT-2 inhibitors (“gliflozins” or “glucoretics), as an insulin-independent treatment for type 2 diabetes, that works by blocking glucose reabsorbtion in the kidney┬áresulting in loss of glucose (and calories) through the kidney, much has been written about the (albeit modest) weight loss associated with this treatment.

Several studies have documented that the weight loss leads to a change in body composition with an often significant reduction in fat mass.

Now, Giuseppe Daniele and colleagues, in a paper published in Diabetes Care, show that treatment with these compounds may enhance fat oxidation and increase ketone production in patients with type 2 diabetes.

The researchers randomized 18 individuals with type 2 diabetes to dapagliflozin or placebo for two weeks.

As expected, dapagliflozin reduced fasting plasma glucose significantly (from 167  to 128 mg/dL).

It also increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (measured by insulin clamp) by 36%, indicating a significant increase in insulin sensitivity.

Compared to baseline, glucose oxidation decreased by about 20%, whereas nonoxidative glucose disposal (glycogen synthesis) increased by almost 50%.

Moreover, dapagliflozin increased lipid oxidation resulting in a four-fold increase in plasma ketone concentration and and a 30% increase in fasting plasma glucagon.

Thus, the authors note that treatment with dapagliflozine improved insulin sensitivity and caused a shift from glucose to lipid oxidation, which, together with an increase in glucagon-to-insulin ratio, provide the metabolic basis for increased ketone production.

While this may explain the recent observation of a greater (albeit still rather rare) incidence of ketoacidosis with the use of these compounds, these findings may also explain part of the change in body composition previously noted with SGLT-2 treatment.

While this still does not make SGLT-2 inhibitors “weight-loss drugs”, there appears to be more to the fat┬áloss seen with these compounds than just the urinary┬áexcretion of glucose.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

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Metformin Attenuates Long-Term Weight Gain in Insulin-Resistant Adolescents

metformin-300x217The biguanide metformin is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin has also been shown to slow the progression from pre to full-blown type 2 diabetes. Moreover, metformin can reduce weight gain associated with psychotropic medications and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Now, a randomised controlled trial by M P van der Aa and colleagues from the Netherlands, published in Nutrition & Diabetes suggests that long-term treatment with metformin may stabilize body weight and improve body composition in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance.

The randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded trial included 62 adolescents with obesity aged 10ÔÇô16 years old with insulin resistance, who received 2000ÔÇëmg of metformin or placebo daily and physical training twice weekly over 18 months.

Of the 42 participants (mean age 13, mean BMI 30), BMI was stabilised in the metformin group (+0.2 BMI unit), whereas the control group continued to gain weight (+1.2 BMI units).

While there was no significant difference in HOMA-IR, mean fat percentage reduced by 3% compared to no change in the control group.

Thus, the researcher conclude that long-term treatment with metformin in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance can result in stabilization of BMI and improved body composition compared with placebo.

Given the rather limited effective options for addressing childhood obesity, this rather safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment may at least provide some relief for adolescents struggling with excess weight gain.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

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The Weight Of Living

weight-of-livingIn its approach to addressing weight bias and discrimination, the Canadian Obesity Network recently launched the “Weight of Living” (WoL) project on its facebook page.

Modelled on “Humans of New York”, WoL presents images and stories of Canadians living with obesity in all their diversity and variation.

After all, nothing is more effective in breaking down stereotypes and barriers than realizing that people living with obesity are no different from everyone else, in their hopes, their dreams, their challenges, their aspirations – doing their best to cope and overcome what life throws at them.

Rather than promoting a culture of fat-shaming and blaming, the Canadian Obesity Network seeks to destigmatise those living with obesity by encouraging them to share their real stories in their own words.

Thus, this project seeks to dismantle the stereotypes that surround the lives of people who live with obesity, including the notion that everyone who has overweight or obesity wants to lose weight because they are unhappy with themselves.

Many of the stories you will see in the upcoming weeks do not reflect this. The Canadian Obesity Network hopes that, by sharing these experiences, we all will realize that people who have overweight or obese have goals, dreams, and aspirations just like everyone else, and that their weight is not necessarily a barrier to achieving these, nor is it something that needs to be a source of fear and shame.

In contrast to many other “weight-loss” sites, the Canadian Obesity Network will not┬ápublish stories that glorify weight loss journeys, commercial programs or products, or extreme weight loss attempts.

“While we respect the importance and validity of each story we receive, publishing stories like these only serve to reinforce the idea that people who are overweight or obese are living unhappy, unfulfilling lives – and we know you are worth so much more than that.”

Check out the first WoL stories here, here, here, and here

For more information on how to participate in this project click here or send an e-mail to levitsky@obesitynetwork.ca.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

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Can Planned Cheating Help You Stick With Your Diet?

pepperoni-pizza-slice-3Many diet plans praise the importance of strict adherence to whatever the storyline of the diet happens to be. This includes tips on what foods to avoid or to never eat. Indulging in these “forbidden” foods, is considered cheating and failure.

Now, research by┬áRita Coelho do Vale and colleagues, published in the Journal of Consumer Psychology, explores the notion that planned “cheats” can substantially improve adherence with restrictive diets.

Using a set of controlled dietary experiments (both simulated and real dieting), the researchers tested the notion that┬ágoal deviations (a more scientific term for “cheats”) in the plan helps consumers to regain or even improve self-regulatory resources along the goal-pursuit process and can thus enhance the likelihood that the final goal is attained.

That, is exactly what they found:

Compared to individuals who followed a straight and rigid goal, individuals with planned deviations helped subjects┬áregain self-regulatory resources, helped┬ámaintain subjects’ motivation to pursue with regulatory tasks, and (3) has a positive impact on affect experienced, which are all likely to facilitate long-term goal-adherence.

Thus, the authors conclude that, “…it may be beneficial for long-term goal-success to occasionally be bad, as long it is planned.

This is not really that new to those of us, who recommend or use planned “treats” as a way to make otherwise restrictive diets bearable.

Good to see that there is now some research to support this notion.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

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How Do People With Obesity Spend Their Time?

time spiralWe live in a time where most of us┬ácomplain about the lack of it. Thus, I often remind myself that our ÔÇ£fast-food cultureÔÇØ is more a time than a food problem.

Now a study by Viral Patel and colleagues, published in OBESITY, takes a detailed look at how US Americans spend their time according to different BMI categories.

The researchers analyse data from over 28,503 observations of individuals aged 22 to 70 from the American Time Use Survey, a continuous cross-sectional survey on time use in the USA.

In a statistical model that adjusted for various sociodemographic, geographic, and temporal characteristics, younger age; female sex; Asian race; higher levels of education; family income >$75 k; self-employment; and residence in the West or Northeast census regions were all associated with a lower BMI relative to reference categories whereas age 50 to 59 years; Black, Hispanic, or ÔÇ£otherÔÇØ race; and not being in the labor force were associated with a higher BMI.

That said, here are the differences in time use associated with higher BMI:

Although there were no substantial differences among BMI categories in time spent sleeping, overweight individuals experienced almost 20 fewer minutes of sleeplessness on weekends/holidays than individuals with normal weight. Furthermore, there was a U-shaped relationship between BMI and sleep duration such that BMI was lowest when sleep duration was approximately 8 h per day and increased as sleep duration became both shorter and longer. Less sleep on weekends and holidays (5 to 7 h) was also associated with higher BMI than 8 to 9 h or sleep.

There were also no major differences between BMI categories and the odds of participating in work or in the amount of time working. However, working 3-4 h on weekends/holidays was associated with the lowest BMI. Individuals with obesity were more likely to be working between 3:30 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. on weekdays than normal-BMI individuals, again perhaps cutting into restful sleep.

Individuals with obesity were less likely to participate in food and drink preparation than individuals with normal weight on weekdays but spent about the same amount of time eating or drinking as the reference category.

Interestingly, individuals with obesity were more likely than individuals with normal weight to participate in health-related self-care, and overweight individuals spent over 1 h more on weekdays than individuals with normal weight on health-related self-care and also spent an additional 15 min (almost double the time) on professional and personal care services.

While individuals with higher BMI were less likely to participate in sports, exercise, and recreation on weekdays and weekends/holidays compared with individuals with normal weight, those who did participate did not differ from individuals with normal weight in the amount of time spent participating. In contrast, overweight individuals were more likely to attend sports/recreation events during the week and spent an additional 47 min (almost 25% more) on this activity than individuals with normal weight.

Overall, there was a positive and generally linear association between time spent viewing television/movies and BMI, with individuals with obesity more likely to watch television almost all hours of the day during the week and weekends.

On weekends/holidays, individuals with obesity were more likely to participate in care for household children and household adults. It was also observed that individuals with obesity spent an additional 15 min on religious and spiritual activities on weekends/holidays, compared with normal-BMI individuals (who spent 116 min).

While these data are of interest and are largely consistent with the emerging data on the role of optimal sleep duration and the detrimental impact of sedentary activities like television viewing on body weight, we must remember that the data are cross-sectional in nature and cannot be interpreted to imply causality (as, unfortunately, the authors do throughout their discussion).

Also, no correction is made for increasing medical, mental, or functional limitations associated with increasing BMI levels, which may well substantially affect time use including sleep, work, participation in sports or work-related activities.

Thus, it is not exactly clear what lessons one can learn regarding possible interventions ÔÇô it is one thing to describe behaviours ÔÇô it is an entirely different thing to try and understand why those behaviours occur in the first place.

Thus, unfortunately, findings from these type of studies too often feed into the simplistic and stereotypical ÔÇ£obesity is a choiceÔÇØ narrative, which does little more than promote weight bias and discrimination.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

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Effectiveness of Exercise Interventions After Bariatric Surgery

sharma-obesity-pedometer2There is no doubt that exercise is good for you and that individuals with obesity, both before and after bariatric surgery (like everyone else), would stand to benefit from increasing their levels of physical activity.

Following bariatric surgery, exercise may be particularly important not just to increase physical fitness, but also to limit the obligatory loss in muscle mass that generally accompanies weight loss.

Now, a study by David Creel and colleagues, published in OBESITY, compares three levels of exercise intervention in patients following bariatric surgery in terms of effectiveness and adherence.

A total of 150 patients undergoing bariatric surgery were randomised to either standard care (SC), pedometer use (P), or exercise counseling group (C).

The standard care group (SC) received no exercise support by the bariatric center beyond a simple educational pamphlet.

Participants in the pedometer group (P) were given a pedometer and a one-page information sheet on using the device to increase physical activity. This handout promoted the progressive attainment of 10,000 steps/day. Individuals were asked to wear their device daily and record date, steps achieved, and whether they wore the device the entire day, part of the day, or not at all. Journals were collected, but no feedback was provided.

Participants in the exercise counselling group (C) were regularly seen at the bariatric centre and counselled by a certified exercise professional using motivational intervention techniques with individual goal setting.

Based on physical activity measurements using an accelerometer over two weeks before and 2, 4, and 6 months postoperatively, there was no difference between the SC and P groups, with a statistically significant but modest increase in daily steps in the C group that emerged at 4 months and was maintained at 6 months (about 1,000 extra steps per day compared to SC).

There was no notable difference in exercise tolerance, which increased in all three groups post surgery.

No group reached the 10,000 steps/day or 150 bout-minutes/week recommended for general health

As may be expected from these rather modest results, no significant differences in weight or weight change were found between groups at any time point.

Thus, these findings suggest that handing out a pedometer and asking patients to journal their activity is no more effective in promoting physical activity, than simply handing out a pamphlet; moreover, even adding in counselling by an exercise professional adds little (if anything) to the outcome.

Although the researchers discuss the possibility that an even more intense intervention may provide more benefit, the modest findings certainly question the effectiveness of activity interventions post surgery.

Certainly, simply handing out pedometers does nothing, and adding in expensive group meetings or meetings with exercise professionals adds little more.

These finding by no means speak against the value of exercise after bariatric surgery – they just speak against the indiscriminate use of expensive healthcare resources, when they achieve little more than can be achieved by handing out a pamphlet.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

 

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