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Does Self-Deprecating Humour Help Deal With Weight Stigma?

People living with obesity are all too aware of being the butt of “fat-jokes” – indeed, there remains a shockingly widespread societal acceptance of weight-related humour – not least, manifested in the recent spate of COVID-19 “jokes”. Moreover, there appears to be a widely held belief that “fat” individuals are funnier, more entertaining, and merrier, and thus, perhaps fair game – after all we’re just having a harmless laugh. This impression may well be strengthened by the observation that people living with excess weight often seem to make jokes about and laugh about themselves. This has been interpreted as being “better if they laugh with me, than at me”. Now an interesting paper by Natalia Maazurkiewicz and colleagues from the University of Gdansk, Poland, published in the International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health, reveals self-deprecating humor to be a strategy often used by women, who perceive weight stigma.  Their research was conducted in 127 young adult women both with and without excess body fat, who were administered the Humor Styles Questionnaire, Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire, and the Brief COPE.  As their study reveals,  “…women with overfat (sic) more often use humor to reduce stress, especially in situations where they feel stigmatized. Interestingly, this humor is often aimed at themselves, as self-depreciation. At the same time, obese individuals (sic) are often the objects of jokes and are used as a source of humor in entertainment media; they are thus an object of ridicule, and references to one’s own weight are typically met with laughter.”  Indeed, it should not be surprising that these women use humour as a coping strategy, but rather that this can in fact be harmful.  “The originators of the concept of humor styles indicate that humor may have an adaptive character, but that it can also be harmful and maladaptive. Thus, it is not the sense of humor in itself but rather the ways one uses it and the goals one has when using it that are important for understanding its role in everyday functioning. Maladaptive styles of humor are associated with aggression and being snide. Aggressive humor is directed outwardly; it is associated with raising one’s status and mood by demeaning and ridiculing other people, making fun of them.” In the context of the issue at hand, the authors remind us  that,  “Self-defeating humor is based on the need for approval through paying the price of… Read More »

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What Randomised Controlled Trials of Anti-Obesity Medications Tell us About Lifestyle Interventions

Over the past several years we have seen a spate of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to test the efficacy of various anti-obesity medications. All of these trials included a control group, in which patients were offered some form of dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake and instructions on increasing physical activity. Perhaps, even more importantly, these studies were conducted in volunteers, run at centres with at least some expertise in obesity management, and included regular visits and contact with study personnel, all factors that would be expected to promote weight loss.  Taken together, most of these features would by far exceed what would normally be offered in terms of obesity management in routine clinical practice.  Thus, it would be fair to say that the control groups in these studies are not only a reflection of what may be expected in ‘usual care’ with lifestyle interventions but most likely represent best outcomes.  Although I have not conducted a formal meta-analysis of these trials, it is quite evident that the average weight loss in the control groups ranges somewhere between 3-6% of initial weight.  This, interestingly enough, is exactly the range of weight loss seen in RCTs that are specifically designed to test various dietary and other non-pharmacological treatments for obesity.  In light of these findings, it would only be fair to conclude that based on the vast body of evidence from RCTs on various obesity treatments – the best we can expect in terms of weight loss from behavioural interventions (even in volunteers, seen at regular intervals by experts in the field), is in the ball-park of 3-6%. While this degree of weight loss may well have some health benefits, these outcomes should be rather sobering, to anyone who believes that they can “conquer” their obesity with “lifestyle-change”. In practical terms, if all you are aiming for is a 3-6% weight loss, it would be fine to just see a dietitian and perhaps increase your physical activity – for anything more, you should clearly be looking at adding medication or perhaps considering surgery (where indicated). @DrSharmaBerlin, D

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Even More Evidence to Support Lower Mortality After Metabolic Surgery

Anyone following the literature should by now have noticed the steady stream of evidence consistently showing reductions in morbidity and mortality following metabolic surgery. Now, yet another study, this one by Anita Courcoulas and colleagues, published in the Annals of Surgery, provides further evidence for this.  Their retrospective analyses included a cohort of patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n=13,900) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n=17,258)  from January 2005 to September 2015 in three integrated health systems in the US, that were matched to 87,965 nonsurgical patients on site, age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, insulin use, race/ethnicity, combined Charlson/Elixhauser comorbidity score, and prior health care utilization, with follow-up through September 2015.  RYGB and SG were each associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to nonsurgical patients at 5-years of follow-up (RYGB: HR = 0.43; SG: HR = 0.28). Similarly, RYGB was associated with a significantly lower 5-year risk of cardiovascular- (HR = 0.27), cancer- (HR = 0.54), and diabetes-related mortality (HR = 0.23).  For patients with SG, there was not enough follow-up time to assess 5-year cause-specific mortality, but at 3-years follow-up, there was significantly lower risk of cardiovascular- (HR = 0.33), cancer- (HR = 0.26), and diabetes-related (HR = 0.15) mortality. These findings are clearly consistent with the growing body of evidence that metabolic surgery, despite involving rather complex surgery, can very significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in individuals with severe obesity. Not that I expect these data to convince the nay-sayers and sceptics – but for those of us who regularly counsel patients considering metabolic surgery, they do continue to raise our level of confidence in the substantial benefits of these procedures.  DrSharmaBerlin, D 

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Do Childhood Adverse Events Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

To anyone involved in adult obesity management, harrowing stories of adverse life events that may have significantly contributed to weight gain, are neither uncommon nor surprising.  While retrospective data in adults often implicates adverse events during childhood, longitudinal studies on the role of such events on body weight during childhood are less common.  This is now the topic of a study by Miriam Schiff and colleagues published in Public Health Nutrition. The researchers looked at the relationship between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and excess weight  in longitudinal data from three waves of the second cohort of the US National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), which sampled cases from US Child Protective Services investigations that were closed between February 2008 and April 2009 nationwide. The sample included 3170 kids ranging in age between infancy and 14 at baseline.  Abusive and neglectful events were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale – Parent-Child version at each wave, whereby hitting with a fist or kicking, beating, choking, burning and threatening with or using a knife or gun were coded as physical abuse; leaving a child alone when an adult should be present, not being able to provide food, being too drunk or high, or not being able to get to a doctor when a child needed it were coded as neglect; any forced sexual contact was coded as sexual abuse; so caught up with problems that parent did not tell child (s)he were not loved were coded as emotional neglect and shout/yell/scream, swear or curse, called dumb or lazy or threaten to send away were coded as psychological abuse.  While supporting the hypothesis that ACEs play a role in the development of childhood obesity, both the number and nature of events as well as the sex of the child appear to matter.  Thus, for e.g., while for all youth, neglect as a single event was associated with about 2.5 greater odds of obesity, for girls who experienced neglect, the odds ratio was closer to 5.   Not all ACEs were positively associated with obesity. Thus, girls, experiencing physical abuse or having a parent with mental health problems had decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0.4), while boys who experienced sexual abuse were likewise less likely to develop obesity (OR =0.06). As the authors point out, several limitations to these data must be considered. For one, the assessment of ACEs was entirely based… Read More »

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Why Do People Lose Weight After Metabolic Surgery?

Back in the days, the answer to how bariatric surgery works was rather simple. Mechanistically, you either caused surgical restriction (e.g. vertical banded gastroplasty, adjustable gastric banding) or malabsorption (e.g. jejuno-ileostomy, bilio-pancreatic diversion).  In the meantime, we know that neither restriction nor malabsorption play a significant role (if any) in why bariatric surgery works.  Rather, we now believe that the remarkable long-term success of these surgical interventions is based on important metabolic changes induced by these procedures, thus prompting the renaming of bariatric to metabolic surgery. But what exactly are the metabolic changes induced by the various current procedures, and how do they contribute to the weight loss and other metabolic changes seen in these patients?  This is now the topic of an extensive review by Alina Akalestou and colleagues, published in Endocrine Reviews.  In this paper, the authors discuss what is known about the roles of alterations in the neuroendocrine mechanisms of central appetite control (both wanting and liking), release of gut peptides that change hunger and satiety, as well as change in microbiota and bile acids.  In addition they briefly review the possibility that metabolic surgery impairs adaptive thermogenesis thereby resulting in a greater metabolic rate than to be expected given the magnitude of weight loss.  Overall, the mechanisms are clearly manifold and complex and may vary substantially based on the actual surgical procedure but also on the time course following surgery.  Clearly better understanding these mechanisms should not only inform surgical innovations but also help identify potential pharmacological targets for novel anti-obesity medications.  @DrSharmaBerlin, D

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