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Attention Deficit Disorder

Today’s post is another excerpt from “Best Weight: A Practical Guide to Office-Based Weight Management“, recently published by the Canadian Obesity Network. This guide is meant for health professionals dealing with obese clients and is NOT a self-management tool or weight-loss program. However, I assume that even general readers may find some of this material of interest. ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD or ADHD) and impulsiveness has been associated with increased risk for weight gain in both children and adults. In one study, ADHD was present in over 25% of all obese patients and 40% of patients with class III obesity. Reasons for this prevalent co-morbidity are unknown, but brain dopamine or insulin receptor activity may be involved. Patients with ADD or ADHD usually manifest a long history (since childhood) of impulsivity, lack of concentration, decreased attention, inability to complete tasks, impairment in school or work performance and social dysfunction. Being “hyperactive” in the sense of the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD does not prevent the development or persistence of overweight and obesity in children. Bariatric patients showing poor focus during treatment should be investigated for ADD or ADHD. Identifying the disorder is crucial as they will not be able to focus on the weight- management plan until their impulsiveness and lack of concentration are addressed. Pharmacological and behavioural therapies can often help patients improve task persistence and decrease impulsivity and distractibility, which will increase the likelihood of success with weight-control efforts. © Copyright 2010 by Dr. Arya M. Sharma and Dr. Yoni Freedhoff. All rights reserved. The opinions in this book are those of the authors and do not represent those of the Canadian Obesity Network. Members of the Canadian Obesity Network can download Best Weight for free. Best Weight is also available at Amazon and Barnes & Nobles (part of the proceeds from all sales go to support the Canadian Obesity Network) If you have already read Best Weight, please take a few minutes to leave a review on the Amazon or Barnes & Nobles website.


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Attention Deficit Disorder

Regular readers will recall that almost 30% of adults with severe obesity may have signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and, when present, this can be a major barrier to weight management. Thus, all patient in our obesity clinic are routinely screened for ADHD and often treating this condition is the first step to successful weight management. However, not all patients with ADHD are willing to undergo treatment, some do not tolerate the medications, and in others, medications are simply not effective enough. Now, a study by Steven Safren and colleagues from Harvard University, Boston, MA, published in JAMA, demonstrates the effectiveness of adding cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to medication for better control of ADHD. Safren and colleagues randomised 86 symptomatic adults with ADHD who were already being treated with medication to 12 individual sessions of either cognitive behavioral therapy or relaxation with educational support (controls). 79 participants completed treatment and 70 completed the 12 month follow-up assessments. CBT was delivered according to the manual, “Mastering Your Adult ADHD” and consisted of 3 core modules and 2 optional modules. The first module (4 sessions) focused on psychoeducation about ADHD and training in organizing and planning (use of calendar and task list system), including problem-solving training (generating alternatives and picking the best solution, breaking down overwhelming tasks into steps). The second module (2 sessions) involved learning skills to reduce distractibility, such as techniques to time the length of one’s attention span, and, when doing a task, write down distractions vs acting on them. The third module (3 sessions) was cognitive restructuring, which involved learning to think more adaptively in situations that cause distress. Optional modules were one session of application of skills to procrastination and one session including the patient’s family member for support. Patients for whom the optional sessions were not relevant had booster sessions on prior material. The final session was focused on review and relapse prevention. Patients in the relaxation condition received training in progressive muscle relaxation and other relaxation techniques as applied to ADHD symptoms, as well as education about ADHD and supportive psychotherapy. Participants undergoing the CBT intervention achieved lower posttreatment scores and self-reported significant improvement in symptoms. Participants in the CBT arm were about four-times more likely to respond compared to the relaxation group. Most of this response was maintained over 6 and 12 months. This study demonstrates that the use of CBT in adults with… Read More »


Please Pay Attention – You May Have Obesity

While I am taking a brief break from clinics and other obligations (including daily blog posts), I will be reposting past articles, which I still believe to be relevant but may have escaped the attention of the 100s of new readers who have signed up in the past months. The following was first posted on 04/01/08 (For more recent posts on this topic click here) There are over 50 recent publications in PubMed on the possible link between Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and obesity. In my own anecdotal experience I continue to be surprised on how many patients presenting with obesity have clear signs of this disorder. They are usually the patients who show up late for appointments because they locked their keys in their cars, did not fill the last prescription for their metformin because they lost it, started filling out food records but never got past the first day, used their new bike only once because they never got around to fixing the flat tire from their first ride, take a packed lunch to work but forget to eat it, enthusiastically start a new diet but lose interest three days later because weight loss is too slow – I could go on forever – you probably get the picture. In my practice I have come to recognize that ADD is probably one of the most common and frustrating barriers to obesity management. By definition, individuals with ADD lack the ability to plan ahead and to follow through on their plans, easily lose interest, and are constantly sabotaged by their impulsiveness when it comes to making healthy choices. There is now evidence to support the notion that alterations in the dopaminergic reward system may be common to both ADD and hedonistic hyperphagia. Not surprisingly there is some work showing that methylphenidate (ritalin) can sometimes reduce cravings for sweet and fatty foods. It does not surprise me that someone with ADD is probably more prone to “mindless eating” and thus more likely to gain weight than someone with proper impulse control. One of the most remarkable cases I recall was a patient, who after being started on ritalin, at his next visit for the first time brought in and proudly presented meticulously completed food records (he was also a couple of pounds lighter). In medicine it is always easiest to blame the patient – not motivated, not interested, not focused, not… Read More »


Please Pay Attention – You May be Obese

There are over 50 recent publications in PubMed on the possible link between Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and obesity. In my own anecdotal experience I continue to be surprised on how many patients presenting with obesity have clear signs of this disorder. They are usually the patients who show up late for appointments because they locked their keys in their cars, did not fill the last prescription for their metformin because they lost it, started filling out food records but never got past the first day, used their new bike only once because they never got around to fixing the flat tire from their first ride, take a packed lunch to work but forget to eat it, enthusiastically start a new diet but lose interest three days later because weight loss is too slow – I could go on forever – you probably get the picture. In my practice I have come to recognize that ADD is probably one of the most common and frustrating barriers to obesity management. By definition, individuals with ADD lack the ability to plan ahead and to follow through on their plans, easily lose interest, and are constantly sabotaged by their impulsiveness when it comes to making healthy choices. There is now evidence to support the notion that alterations in the dopaminergic reward system may be common to both ADD and hedonistic hyperphagia. Not surprisingly there is some work showing that methylphenidate (ritalin) can sometimes reduce cravings for sweet and fatty foods. It does not surprise me that someone with ADD is probably more prone to “mindless eating” and thus more likely to gain weight than someone with proper impulse control. One of the most remarkable cases I recall was a patient, who after being started on ritalin, at his next visit for the first time brought in and proudly presented meticulously completed food records (he was also a couple of pounds lighter). In medicine it is always easiest to blame the patient – not motivated, not interested, not focused, not following instructions, not compliant, not adherent, etc. Recognizing that this behavior may be due to ADD and providing proper treatment for this condition may in these cases be the first step to obesity management. AMS


Factors That Can Affect Ingestive Behaviour: Psychological or Hedonic Factors

Continuing with citations from my article in Obesity Reviews on an aeteological framework for assessing obesity, we now turn to the some of the factors that can affect ingestive behaviour: Psychological or Hedonic Factors In contrast to hyperphagia resulting from physical hunger, over‐eating for emotional reward or as a coping strategy is regulated by the hedonic system and has little to do with the body’s real or perceived need for calories. The range of psychological or emotional factors that can initiate and influence eating encompass virtually the entire range of emotional responses including stress, frustration, loneliness, anxiety, anger, disgust, fear, grief, joy, relief, all of which can significantly alter dietary restraint or promote disinhibition. Typically, hedonic hyperphagia is associated with the selection and consumption of highly palatable energy‐dense ‘comfort’ foods, although homeostatic hyperphagia also tends to be associated with the preferential consumption of palatable foods. In addition to simple ‘emotional’ over‐eating, specific psychiatric conditions that affect food intake or can pose important barriers to maintaining a healthy diet must be considered. Increased appetite is a feature of atypical depression and can be interpreted as ‘self‐medicating’ with food – particularly in cases where these foods affect the serotonergic and reward systems to improve mood. Binge eating, night eating and other abnormal eating behaviours must also be seen in the context of underlying emotional or psychological processes that are distinct from homeostatic ingestive behaviour. Other mental health conditions that can significantly affect eating include attention deficit disorders, post‐traumatic stress syndrome, sleep disorders, chronic pain, anxiety disorders, addictions, seasonal affective disorder and cognitive disorders. Particularly sleep deprivation has been associated with increased appetite and ingestion of highly palatable snacks as well as increased risk for diabetes. Patients with obesity resulting from emotional eating or hedonic hyperphagia are most likely to benefit more from psychological and/or psychiatric interventions rather than simply from dietary counselling. Commentary: Although for didactic and practical purposes I find it helpful to distinguish between what I have referred to as “homeostatic” vs. “hedonic” hyperphagia, it is important to note that at a physiological level, the distinction between the “homeostatic” and “hedonic” pathways is not as clear cut as is often assumed. In fact, there is close and complex cross talk between these pathways. For example, hunger, a feature of the “homeostatic” pathway, is also a powerful activator of the “hedonic” pathway, thus leading to seeking out and consumption of caloric-dense… Read More »