Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Introducing Sadly The Line-Dancing Owl

Sadly The Line Dancing Owl

Sadly The Line Dancing Owl

Yesterday, I posted about my daughter Linnie von Sky’s 2nd children’s book Pom Pom A Flightless Bully Tale, that is now available here.

Today, I would like to introduce you to Sadly The Line-Dancing Owl, who one morning wakes up with a dark cloud over his head.

Learn how Sadly in the end overcomes his sadness and how he finds the help he needs to be his happy self again. 

After tackling immigration and bullying, Linnie turns her attention to depression – in a children’s book that she admits is somewhat autobiographical,

“Depression is REAL and it SUCKS…at least it sucked the living daylight out of me and consumes too many people I love.”

Along for the ride is the incredibly talented Ashley O’Mara as the new illustrator.  Ashley is a Vancouverite, Emily Carr Graduate, Bird Lover (she draws the cutest darn chickens I’ve ever seen) and like Linnie, knows a thing or two about how much depression hurts.  

Please consider supporting Linnie’s fundraising campaign by pre-ordering your personal copy(ies) of Sadly The Line-Dancing Owl, which will again be 100% made in Canada.

To learn more about Sadly and how you can support this venture, please take a minute to visit Linnie’s Indiegogo page.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

 

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Friday, December 5, 2014

Hypothalamic Inflammation In Human Obesity

sharma-obesity-astrogliosisRegular readers may recall the exciting body of work from animal models of obesity showing that hypothalamic inflammation involving microscarring (gliosis) may play an important role in appetite and energy regulation in obesity.

Now, a study by Josep Puig and colleagues from the University of Girona, Spain, published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, provides evidence for a similar process in humans.

The researchers used an MRI technique called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure hypothalamic damage in 24 consecutive middle-aged obese subjects (average BMI 43) and 20 healthy volunteers (average BMI 24).

Not only did the obese participants show greater signs of hypothalamic inflammation but these changes were also strongly associated with higher BMI, fat mass, inflammatory markers, carotid-intima media thickness, and hepatic steatosis and lower scores on cognitive tests.

While these studies do not prove cause and effect, these findings are consistent with findings in animal models and point to the role of pro-inflammatory pathways in the areas of the brain known to be intimately linked to appetite and energy regulation.

Understanding what exactly triggers this inflammatory response (in animal models, one fact appears to be a high-fat diet) and how this process could be inhibited, may open new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

@DrSharma
Madrid, Spain

ResearchBlogging.orgPuig J, Blasco G, Daunis-I-Estadella J, Molina X, Xifra G, Ricart W, Pedraza S, Fernández-Aranda F, & Fernández-Real JM (2014). Hypothalamic damage is associated with inflammatory markers and worse cognitive performance in obese subjects. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism PMID: 25423565

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Thursday, November 27, 2014

Would You Like Some Guilt With That Popcorn?

popcornYesterday, I blogged about the McKinsey discussion paper that calls on governments to throw everything they’ve got at the obesity epidemic – proven or unproven – anything is better than nothing.

That said, it is indeed timely that this week, the US-FDA announced sweeping regulations on putting calories on menus, not just in fastfood restaurants but also in grocery stores, vending machines, and movie theatres.

Personally, I am all for it – never mind that we have yet to show that providing this information at the point of purchase actually changes behaviour of the target population (namely the people who do need to watch their calories) – I, for one, do find this information helpful.

Thus, every time I visit a McDonalds restaurant (yes, I do), I study the nutritional information that this restaurant chain has been making available to any customer who bothers to ask for decades.

Indeed, I do admit to deriving a kind of voyeuristic pleasure in seeing those astonishingly high numbers on certain food items and cannot help myself from inwardly shaking my head at the poor schmucks who order those foods.

What I do wonder, however, is whether knowing these numbers has ever actually changed my own behaviour.

Take movie popcorn for instance – I love it! (interestingly this is a habit that I only developed since moving to Canada).

Not that I am not aware that a large popcorn can easily have all the calories I need for the rest of the weekend – yup, I know that – indeed, I am making an “informed choice”.

In the few milliseconds I spend thinking about whether or not I may wish to skip the popcorn this time, those calorie numbers do regularly flash through my mind – in the end, the popcorn always wins.

So how will having the numbers up on the menu board staring in my face change things for me?

My guess is that I’ll still buy the popcorn, except now it will come with an even larger portion of guilt than before.

Obviously, with the numbers up there for everyone to see (including the people in line behind me), there may well now be an added tinge of embarrassment on top of the guilt.

Well, I may not be the typical consumer or even the target of these measures – after all these are meant for the people who could obviously do with some nudging towards eating a healthier diet (not really sure why I am excluding myself from this list).

Yet, I don’t mind these measures, I have always considered this a good idea.

But will having these numbers staring me in the face everytime I eat out change my consumption of popcorn? Probably not.

Will they make me think thrice (I already think twice)? Perhaps.

So to sum up, funnily enough, I find myself in full support of this measure – even if I am not really sure why.

I guess anything is better than nothing.

@DrSharma
Frankfurt, Germany

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Wednesday, November 26, 2014

McKinsey on Obesity: Doing Something Beats Doing Nothing

McKinsey Overcoming ObesityLast week the McKinsey Global Institute, with much media fanfare, released a 120 page discussion paper titled, “Overcoming obesity: An initial economic analysis“, which estimates that the economic cost of the global obesity epidemic is upwards of $2 trillion, a number similar to the economic cost of tobacco consumption or armed conflicts.

The report identifies 74 interventions in 18 areas (ranging from policy and population health to health care) deemed to be cost effective, which, if implemented, could lead to annual savings of $1.2 billion in the UK National Health Services alone.

However, when it comes to the actual impact of these 74 strategies, the report is far more sobering in that it notes that many of these interventions are far from proven:

“The evidence base on the clinical and behavioral interventions to reduce obesity is far from complete, and ongoing investment in research is imperative. However, in many cases this is proving a barrier to action. It need not be so. We should experiment with solutions and try them out rather than waiting for perfect proof of what works, especially in the many areas where interventions are low risk. We have enough knowledge to be taking more action than we currently are.”

In other words, let’s not wait to find out what works – let’s just do something – anything (and keep our fingers crossed).

Thus, the report urges us to

“(1) deploy as many interventions as possible at scale and delivered effectively by the full range of sectors in society; (2) understand how to align incentives and build cooperation; and (3) do not focus unduly on prioritizing interventions because this can hamper constructive action.”

I can see why politicians would welcome these recommendations, as they are essentially a carte blanche to either doing nothing (we don’t have the evidence) or doing whatever they want (anything is better than nothing).

The fact that,

“Based on existing evidence, any single intervention is likely to have only a small overall impact on its own. A systemic, sustained portfolio of initiatives, delivered at scale, is needed to address the health burden.”

means that when any measure fails, it is not because it was the wrong measure but because there was either not enough of it or it was not complemented by additional measures.

Again, a free pass for politicians, who can pass whatever measures they want (based on their political ideologies or populistic pressure from their constituencies), without having to demonstrate that what they did, had any effect at all.

Of course, no report on obesity would be complete without also stressing the importance of “personal responsibility”, as if this was somehow more important for obesity than it is for diabetes, lung disease, heart disease, or any other disease I can think of.

Unfortunately, the report also includes rather nonsensical statements like,

“44 interventions bring 20% of overweight/obese Britons back to normal weight”

a sentence that defies the very chronic nature of obesity, where once established excess weight is vigorously “defended” by complex neuroendocrine responses that will counteract any change in energy balance to sustain excess body weight.

Thus, unfortunately, the authors fall into the common misconception about obesity simply being a matter of calories in and calories out, a balance that can be volitionally adjusted to achieve whatever body weight you wish to have.

Indeed, there is very little discussion in this “discussion paper” of the underlying biology of obesity, although it is acknowledged in passing:

“Even though there are important outstanding questions about diet composition, gut microbiome, and epigenetics, we are not walking blind with no sense of what to address. However, interventions to increase physical activity, reduce energy consumption, and address diet composition cannot just seek to reverse the historical trends that have left the population where it is today. For example, we cannot, nor would we wish to, reverse the invention of the Internet or the industrialization of agriculture. We need to assess what interventions make sense and are feasible in 2014.”

Will this report move governments to action? Or, even more importantly, will this report bring us any closer to reversing the epidemic or providing better treatments to people who already have obesity?

Readers may appreciate that I am not holding my breath quite yet.

ƒƒ@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB
ƒƒ

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Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Obesity Myth: Success Is Measured In Pounds Lost

sharma-obesity-5as-booklet-coverFinally, in this series of common misconceptions about obesity management, discussed in our article in Canadian Family Physician, we address the notion that success in obesity management is best measured in the amount of weight loss:

“Given the importance of obesity as a public health problem, there is widespread effort to encourage people with excess weight to attempt weight loss.

However, a growing body of evidence suggests that a focus on weight loss as an indicator of success is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but could also be damaging, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, and social weight stigmatization and discrimination. 

There is also concern that “anti-fat” talk in public health campaigns might further promote weight bias and discrimination. 

Therefore, it might be time to shift the focus away from body weight to health and wellness in public health interventions.

Recently, the Canadian Obesity Network launched a tool called the 5As of Obesity Management (www.obesitynetwork.ca/5As) to guide primary care practitioners in obesity counseling and management. 

Minimal intervention strategies such as the 5 As (ask, assess, advise, agree, and assist) can guide the process of counseling a patient about behaviour change and can be implemented in busy practice settings.

Obesity management should focus on promoting healthier behaviour rather than simply reducing numbers on the scale. The 5As of Obesity Management is a practical tool to improve the success of weight management within primary care.”

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

 

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In The News

Diabetics in most need of bariatric surgery, university study finds

Oct. 18, 2013 – Ottawa Citizen: "Encouraging more men to consider bariatric surgery is also important, since it's the best treatment and can stop diabetic patients from needing insulin, said Dr. Arya Sharma, chair in obesity research and management at the University of Alberta." Read article

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