Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Can Weight Loss Supplements Promote Weight Gain?

sharma-obesity-weight-loss-supplementsApart from the fact that there are indeed no weight-loss supplements that will help you lose more weight than the weight of the money in your back pocket (a fact that even Dr. Oz had to admit at a recent senate inquiry into the rubbish he promotes on his shows), there may be reason to suspect that the use of such supplements may in fact do the opposite.

Thus, a rather simple experiment by Yevvon Chang and Wen-Bin Chiou from Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, published in Nutrition, suggests that taking a (supposed) weight-loss supplement may actually lead to greater caloric intake.

This field study was conducted in 70 volunteers, who were randomised to taking a either placebo or a weight-loss supplement (the same placebo) and were then exposed to a buffet meal.

On average, participants presumably taking weight loss supplements ate a greater number of food items than did control subjects (overall about 30% more food). They also tended to chose less healthy items than the control group.

This effect tended to be strongest in those subjects who had a more positive attitude towards taking supplements for weight loss (those with the most positive attitude eating almost 3 times more food items).

Or, as the authors summarise,

“…the results supported our hypothesis that taking weight loss supplements was associated with an inclination to eat more food. This link was driven by perceived progress toward the goal of weight reduction. The liberating effect of taking weight loss supplements on food consumption became more prominent as attitudes toward this kind of supplement became more positive.”

Obviously, it is hard to extrapolate from such a short-term experiment to what happens over time – especially when people do follow the lifestyle recommendations that come with most supplements (eat-less-move-more).

This study certainly is in line with the recent observation that people who take statins to lower their blood cholesterol levels tend to eat unhealthier diets and may in fact end up gaining more weight than people who don’t.

Thus, it may be time to study the “fattening” effect of weight-loss supplements. Perhaps the only reason that we have not yet observed this effect in larger studies is because very few people stay on these nonsensical agents for more than a few weeks.

@DrSharma
Gambach, Germany

ResearchBlogging.orgChang YY, & Chiou WB (2014). The liberating effect of weight loss supplements on dietary control: A field experiment. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 30 (9), 1007-10 PMID: 24976417

 

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Thursday, August 28, 2014

Call For Abstracts: Canadian Obesity Summit, Toronto, April 28-May 2, 2015

COS2015 toronto callBuilding on the resounding success of Kananaskis, Montreal and Vancouver, the biennial Canadian Obesity Summit is now setting its sights on Toronto.

If you have a professional interest in obesity, it’s your #1 destination for learning, sharing and networking with experts from across Canada around the world.

In 2015, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON-RCO) and the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons (CABPS) are combining resources to hold their scientific meetings under one roof.

The 4th Canadian Obesity Summit (#COS2015) will provide the latest information on obesity research, prevention and management to scientists, health care practitioners, policy makers, partner organizations and industry stakeholders working to reduce the social, mental and physical burden of obesity on Canadians.

The COS 2015 program will include plenary presentations, original scientific oral and poster presentations, interactive workshops and a large exhibit hall. Most importantly, COS 2015 will provide ample opportunity for networking and knowledge exchange for anyone with a professional interest in this field.

Abstract submission is now open – click here

Key Dates

  • Abstract submission deadline: October 23, 2014
  • Notification of abstract review: January 8, 2014
  • Early registration deadline: March 5, 2015

For exhibitor and sponsorship information – click here

To join the Canadian Obesity Network – click here

I look forward to seeing you in Toronto next year!

@DrSharma
Montreal, QC

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Wednesday, July 23, 2014

In Memorium: Albert (Mickey) J Stunkard

Stunkard twinsAs I spend my days at the 9th Canadian Obesity Network’s Summer Bootcamp for young trainees from Canada and around the world, I was saddened to learn of the passing of Mickey Stunkard, clearly one of the biggest names in obesity research – at a healthy age of 92.

With well over 500 publications to his name, Mickey is perhaps best known for his twin studies showing that the body weight of adopted identical twins reared apart resembles each other and that of their biological parents rather than the weight of their adoptive parents.

This work helped establish the basis for much of the genetic work on obesity that followed, clearly showing that differences in body weight between two individuals are much more accounted for by their difference in genetics than by differences in their “lifestyles”.

These findings were often misused in “nature vs. nurture” debates, an issue that serious scientists have long laid to rest in light of our current understanding that the two cannot be discussed separately, simply because genes and lifestyle interact on virtually every level – from molecules, to cells, to behaviours.

Here is what one obituary had to say about Mickey:

“He surveyed obesity treatment studies in the late ’50s and found that the nation’s diet programs could claim only a 2 percent success rate. He was an early advocate for the use of bariatric surgery to induce weight loss. He also published the first modern account of binge eating in obese individuals.”

I have had to pleasure to often hear him speak at conferences.

He will be dearly remembered.

@DrSharma
Kananaskis, AB

 

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Tuesday, July 15, 2014

The Molecular Biology of Food And Mood

sharma-obesity-brainThe neuroendocrine systems that control ingestive behaviour are intimately linked to the parts of the brain that control mood.

Thus, it is increasingly evident that factors that affect energy homeostasis (diet and exercise) can have profound effects on mood while changes in mood can have significant effects on appetite and energy homeostasis.

But this relationship is far from straightforward – rather, it appears to be rather complex.

Readers interested in an overview of how these two systems interact in the brain may find a recent review by Chen Liu from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, published in Cell Metabolism of interest.

The authors review our current understanding of how mood and food are linked with particular attention to appetite, ingestive behaviour and energy homeostasis.

The article also touches on the effects of pharmacological and surgical treatments for obesity on mood.

Clearly clinicians need to be aware of the close links between these systems and draw on our current understanding of both in their counselling of patients presenting with weight gain and/or depression.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

ResearchBlogging.orgLiu C, Lee S, & Elmquist JK (2014). Circuits Controlling Energy Balance and Mood: Inherently Intertwined or Just Complicated Intersections? Cell metabolism, 19 (6), 902-909 PMID: 24630814

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Monday, July 14, 2014

How To Prevent Gallstones During Weight Loss

GallstonesOne of the best recognised complications of weight loss – especially if this occurs too rapidly – are the development of gallstones, which can result in acute symptoms and often require surgery.

Now Caroline Stokes and colleagues from the Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg, Germany, publish a systematic review of strategies to prevent weight-loss associate gallbladder stones in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Their analysis includes 13 randomised-controlled trials, comprising 1836 participants undergoing weight loss through dieting (8 trials) or bariatric surgery (5 trials).

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) reduced the risk of ultrasound-verified gallstones compared with control interventions with a risk ratio of 0.33 and a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) of only 9.

They also found a significant risk reduction with high-fat weight loss diets (risk ration 0.09).

No adverse effects were noted for either intervention.

Thus, it is evident that UDCA and/or higher dietary fat content prevent the formation of gallstones during weight loss and these treatments should likely be initiated particularly in patients, who are undergoing rapid weight loss (particularly those at high risk of gallbladder stones).

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

ResearchBlogging.orgStokes CS, Gluud LL, Casper M, & Lammert F (2014). Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Diets Higher in Fat Prevent Gallbladder Stones During Weight Loss: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 12 (7), 1090-110000 PMID: 24321208

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In The News

Diabetics in most need of bariatric surgery, university study finds

Oct. 18, 2013 – Ottawa Citizen: "Encouraging more men to consider bariatric surgery is also important, since it's the best treatment and can stop diabetic patients from needing insulin, said Dr. Arya Sharma, chair in obesity research and management at the University of Alberta." Read article

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