Tuesday, October 7, 2014

The Freshmen 15 Are Neither 15 Nor Limited to Freshmen

sharma-obesity-black-studentsAccording to popular belief, the first year of college can be associated with a 15 pound weight gain – often referred to as “the freshman 15″.

Now, a study by Micheal Fedewa and colleagues from the University of Georgia, look at the weight trajectory in college studies in a paper published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Their systematic review and meta-analysis includes 49 studies evaluating the effect of the first year of college (and beyond) on the dependent body weight and or %body fat.

While the researchers found a statistically significant change in body weight among students, the average weight gain was a rather modest 1.6 kg during a typical 4-year college career. Interestingly, this finding is similar to previous estimates suggesting average increases ranging from 1.1. to 2.1 kg in the first year of college.

Thus, the actual average weight gain comes nowhere close to the notorious “15″.

Also, the authors found that most of the weight gain is progressive and continues throughout college – there is little evidence that most of the weight gained (if any) happens in the first year.

Thus, despite individual anecdotal experiences of weight gain, that may sometimes approach or even exceed 15 lbs, there is little scientific basis or reason for concern about the freshman 15.

Or, as the authors put it,

These results suggest that the “Freshman 15” may not pose a significant risk to students’ health, but unhealthy behaviors throughout college may lead to unfavorable changes in body weight, as weight change does not appear to stabilize as previously reported.

Perhaps it is time to put this idea to rest and move on to study issues that may be more important than this.

@DrSharma
Guelph, ON

ResearchBlogging.orgFedewa MV, Das BM, Evans EM, & Dishman RK (2014). Change in Weight and Adiposity in College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American journal of preventive medicine PMID: 25241201

 

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Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Practical Guide To Obesity Prevention in Schools in Developing Countries

Practical Guide To Obesity Prevention in School-Aged ChildrenObesity in school-age children is not just a problem in the affluent West – this issue if of growing importance in countries where one may not quite expect this to be an issue like South Asia or Africa.

Now, researchers from the University of Montreal and McGill University have released a comprehensive practical guide to developing and implementing obesity prevention programs for school-aged children and adolescents in developing countries.

As the authors discuss,

“What is most challenging in low and middle-income countries is the urgency of preventing obesity while also tackling the problem of malnutrition. Again, the school setting is likely the most appropriate to address the dual burden of malnutrition, but interventions are needed at different stages of the lifecycle, beginning with girls, in order to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition and its impact on vulnerability to obesity and other chronic diseases.”

This guide is a product of TRANSNUT (for nutrition transition), a WHO Collaborating Centre comprised of 10 researchers from the Department of Nutrition and other units of the University of Montréal.

In the words of the authors,

“This manual is designed to provide a hands-on guide for health and nutrition professionals to plan, implement and evaluate obesity prevention programmes for school-age children and adolescents in developing countries, particularly in the school setting. Several practical tools are suggested, including for the assessment of obesity and of its proximal determinants, that is, eating and physical activity patterns. Models and conceptual frameworks are discussed because action has to be grounded in sound theory. We provide a 5-step guide to planning healthy nutrition promotion and obesity prevention interventions, which we adapted from the PRECEDE-PROCEED of Green. The steps consist of community and individual assessments, identification of targets for change(community, family, individual level), choice of objectives, design of programme methods, and procedures for theevaluation. In order to foster effective programmes to promote healthy nutrition and lifestyle among school-agechildren and adolescents, we discuss theoretical models of behaviours change that may be appropriate (Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Stages of Change, Transtheoretical Model).”

This document should provide an interesting read to anyone interested in the prevention of childhood obesity in developing countries or elsewhere.

A copy of this guide can be downloaded here

@DrSharma
Charlottetown, PEI

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Tuesday, September 23, 2014

5th Conference on Childhood and Adolescent Obesity, Winnipeg, Sept 23-26, 2014

The next couple of days, I will be attending the 5th Conference on Childhood and Adolescent Obesity in Winnipeg.

For a previous post on this conference and a copy of the program, click here.

For tickets to the Dr. Sharma Show in Winnipeg on September 24th, click here.

@DrSharma
Winnipeg, MB

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Thursday, August 28, 2014

Call For Abstracts: Canadian Obesity Summit, Toronto, April 28-May 2, 2015

COS2015 toronto callBuilding on the resounding success of Kananaskis, Montreal and Vancouver, the biennial Canadian Obesity Summit is now setting its sights on Toronto.

If you have a professional interest in obesity, it’s your #1 destination for learning, sharing and networking with experts from across Canada around the world.

In 2015, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON-RCO) and the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons (CABPS) are combining resources to hold their scientific meetings under one roof.

The 4th Canadian Obesity Summit (#COS2015) will provide the latest information on obesity research, prevention and management to scientists, health care practitioners, policy makers, partner organizations and industry stakeholders working to reduce the social, mental and physical burden of obesity on Canadians.

The COS 2015 program will include plenary presentations, original scientific oral and poster presentations, interactive workshops and a large exhibit hall. Most importantly, COS 2015 will provide ample opportunity for networking and knowledge exchange for anyone with a professional interest in this field.

Abstract submission is now open – click here

Key Dates

  • Abstract submission deadline: October 23, 2014
  • Notification of abstract review: January 8, 2014
  • Early registration deadline: March 5, 2015

For exhibitor and sponsorship information – click here

To join the Canadian Obesity Network – click here

I look forward to seeing you in Toronto next year!

@DrSharma
Montreal, QC

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Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Can a Non-Profit Urban Food Initiative Alleviate Food Insecurity?

Doug Rauch, former President of Trader Joe's

Doug Rauch, former President of Trader Joe’s

Healthy eating (especially produce) is well out of reach for many who have hungry mouths to feed (despite ivory tower experts who proclaim that you can eat healthy for under $2 a day if you only follow their “tips”).

As food insecurity is certainly one of the key drivers of obesity especially within the lower socioeconomic strata, I was very interested in a paper by Deepak Palakshappa and colleagues, who describe a non-profit initiative to address food insecurity, in a paper published in JAMA Pediatrics.

This initiative, that has yet to open its first store, is to be launched by Doug Rauch, former president of Trader Joe’s grocery chain, who believes that nonprofit supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods can help provide nutritious low-cost foods by selling food gathered from the fresh produce and perishables that are discarded from other supermarkets. (The first store, named the Daily Table, has been proposed to open in Dorchester, a low-income neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts.)

Indeed, there is an incredible amount of food that goes waste because it either does not meet the high standards of appearance of supermarket chains or is close to or past its “best-before” date.

As the authors point out,

“While most people believe these dates are based on safety, manufacturers and retailers focus on a product’s shelf life, which is based on peak freshness, which is a function of how the food looks and smells. Many manufacturers date their products earlier because of concerns about protecting their brand image. The US Department of Agriculture states the labels are not safety dates and if food is handled and stored properly, it should be safe to consume even if it is past the date. The confusion specifically regarding date labeling is estimated to lead to 32 billion pounds of avoidable food waste a year.”

The paper also discusses whether such an approach would be deemed ethical. As the authors are quick to point out, the first store has yet to be opened so exactly how things will play out in real life awaits to be seen. 

However, there are good reasons to assume that this initiative has the potential to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables and offers option of purchasing low-cost healthy foods rather than mandating their consumption of healthy foods. The location of these stores in low-income neighbourhoods should help addresses the disparity in access to healthy foods by providing a convenient place for individuals who otherwise may not have healthy foods readily available.

The stores will also offer cooking and health eating classes to promote the autonomy of clients to determine with items to purchase.

The authors also hope that this approach, rather than blaming the individual, will provide an environment conducive to healthier eating while also respecting local social and cultural values.

Of course, whether all of this will work and whether or not such an initiative can be economically viable in the long term remains to be seen. Nevertheless, the initiators of this idea should at least be commended on giving this a shot.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB 

Hat tip to Geoff and Ximena for bringing this article to my attention

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In The News

Diabetics in most need of bariatric surgery, university study finds

Oct. 18, 2013 – Ottawa Citizen: "Encouraging more men to consider bariatric surgery is also important, since it's the best treatment and can stop diabetic patients from needing insulin, said Dr. Arya Sharma, chair in obesity research and management at the University of Alberta." Read article

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