Anyone interested in the issue of obesity and cardiovascular disease may want to get a copy of the latest edition of the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, which includes a number of review articles and opinion pieces on a wide range of issues related to obesity and cardiovascular disease.
Here is the table of contents:
Lim SP, Arasaratnam P, Chow BJ, Beanlands RS, Hessian RC: Obesity and the challenges of noninvasive imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease.
Garcia-Labbé D, Ruka E, Bertrand OF, Voisine P, Costerousse O, Poirier P. Obesity and Coronary Artery Disease: Evaluation and Treatment.
Lovren F, Teoh H, Verma S. Obesity and Atherosclerosis: Mechanistic Insights.
Sankaralingam S, Kim RB, Padwal RS. The Impact of Obesity on the Pharmacology of Medications Used for Cardiovascular Risk Factor Control.
Piché MÈ, Auclair A, Harvey J, Marceau S, Poirier P. How to Choose and Use Bariatric Surgery in 2015.
Poirier P, McCrindle BW, Leiter LA. Obesity-it must not remain the neglected risk factor in cardiology.
Lang JJ, McNeil J, Tremblay MS, Saunders TJ. Sit less, stand more: A randomized point-of-decision prompt intervention to reduce sedentary time.
The camp is open to a select group of graduate and post-graduate trainees from a wide range of disciplines with an interest in obesity research. Over nine days, the trainees are mentored and have a chance to learn about obesity research in areas ranging from basic science to epidemiology and childhood obesity to health policy.
Now, a formal network analysis of bootcamp attendees, published by Jenny Godley and colleagues in the Journal of Interdisciplinary Healthcare, documents the substantial impact that this camp has on the careers of the trainees.
As the analysis of trainees who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006-2010) shows, camp attendance had a profound positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships.
Thus, both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in obesity researcher (and possibly beyond).
Personally, participation at this camp has been one of the most rewarding experiences of my career and I look forward to continuing this annual exercise for years to come.
To apply for the 2015 Bootcamp, which is also open to international trainees – click here.
Godley J, Glenn NM, Sharma AM, & Spence JC (2014). Networks of trainees: examining the effects of attending an interdisciplinary research training camp on the careers of new obesity scholars. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 7, 459-70 PMID: 25336965
The common assumption is that people with more body fat are at greater risk for illness and overall mortality.
Surprisingly, an increasingly robust body of evidence now suggests that how much lean tissue you have may be far more important for your health than the amount of body fat.
This evidence as well as the methodologies used to study lean body mass are discusses in a paper by Carla Prado (University of Alberta) and Steve Heymsfield (Pennington Biomedical Research Center), in a paper published in the Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
As the authors point out,
“The emerging use of imaging techniques such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting have highlighted the importance of lean soft tissue (LST) as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality.“
The paper discusses in depth the advantages and limitation of the many methods that can be used to assess body composition in research and clinical settings.
The paper also discusses the current definition and importance of sarcopenic obesity and notes that,
“The identification of different body composition phenotypes suggests that individuals have different metabolism and hence utilization of fuel sources.”
“It is clear from emerging studies that body composition health will be vital in treatment decisions, prognostic outcomes, and quality of life in several nonclinical and clinical states.”
My guess is that it will not just be the absolute or relative amount of lean tissue mass that is important. Rather, similar to the increasingly recognised role of differences amongst fat depots, I would assume that different lean soft tissue depots may well play different roles in metabolic health.
If you have a professional interest in obesity, it’s your #1 destination for learning, sharing and networking with experts from across Canada around the world.
In 2015, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON-RCO) and the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons (CABPS) are combining resources to hold their scientific meetings under one roof.
The 4th Canadian Obesity Summit (#COS2015) will provide the latest information on obesity research, prevention and management to scientists, health care practitioners, policy makers, partner organizations and industry stakeholders working to reduce the social, mental and physical burden of obesity on Canadians.
The COS 2015 program will include plenary presentations, original scientific oral and poster presentations, interactive workshops and a large exhibit hall. Most importantly, COS 2015 will provide ample opportunity for networking and knowledge exchange for anyone with a professional interest in this field.
Abstract submission is now open – click here
- Notification of abstract review: January 8, 2015
- Call for late breaking abstracts open: Jan 12-30, 2015
- Notification of late breaking abstracts and handouts and slides due : Feb 27, 2015
- Early registration deadline: March 3, 2015
For exhibitor and sponsorship information – click here
To join the Canadian Obesity Network – click here
I look forward to seeing you in Toronto next year!
While we continue to debate the incidence and physiology of healthy obesity (i.e. adiposity without any evident health problems), there are ample examples of adiposity in the animal kingdom, where the accumulation of vast amounts of fat tissue are entirely compatible with good health.
One of these fascinating example is the grizzly bear, which accumulates enough fat to last all winter without any apparent ill-effects on its health – indeed, the accumulation of fat to a level that would be considered “morbidly obese” in humans in vital to its survival.
Thus, not only is “healthy” obesity possible in mammals, it may also be an important area of study to better understand healthy obesity (or lack of it) in humans.
Insights into healthy obesity comes from a fascinating study by Lynne Nelson and colleagues from Washington State University, in a paper published in Cell Metabolism.
The researchers studied metabolism in four adult female grizzly bears, trained to “voluntarily” allow blood samples to be drawn for this study (for a video on how exactly this was done click here).
Their study shows that as grizzly bears accumulate fat in preparation for hibernation, they become exquisitely insulin sensitive, only to switch to a state of insulin resistance as they enter hibernation. This process reverses as they emerge from hibernation months later.
While the paper describes in detail the metabolic and hormonal pathways involved in this modulation of insulin sensitivity (via PTEN/AKT signaling in adipose tissue, it suggests that it is the ability to maintain insulin sensitivity in the face of increased adipose tissue that allows these animals to remain metabolically healthy.
As readers may recall, this is akin to the finding in humans that healthy obese individuals also display high levels of insulin sensitivity compared to metabolically unhealthy obese individuals, who display the more typical insulin resistance.
While much of this ability to maintain insulin sensitivity in a state of adiposity may be genetic (as in the rare case of humans with PTEN haploinsufficiency) other factors that enhance insulin sensitivity (e.g. regular aerobic exercise) may also help prevent or alleviate the metabolic consequences of excess fat.
Other factors may well include the actual location of the expanded fat depots, with peripheral accumulation of subcutaneous fat being far less likely to cause metabolic problems (and perhaps even protect against) than visceral or ectopic fat.
Now I guess, we need a study to see how well healthy obese humans do in hibernation.
Hat tip to Susan Jelinski for pointing me to this paper
Nelson OL, Jansen HT, Galbreath E, Morgenstern K, Gehring JL, Rigano KS, Lee J, Gong J, Shaywitz AJ, Vella CA, Robbins CT, & Corbit KC (2014). Grizzly Bears Exhibit Augmented Insulin Sensitivity while Obese Prior to a Reversible Insulin Resistance during Hibernation. Cell metabolism, 20 (2), 376-82 PMID: 25100064