Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Does Your Liver Control Your Appetite?

Fatty Liver

Fatty Liver

The answer may well be “yes”, at least if you happen to be a mouse.

In a rather exciting study by Iliana López-Soldado and colleagues from the Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona, published in DIABETES, the researchers show that increased liver glycogen content may affect appetite (measured as food intake) and otherwise have beneficial effects on metabolism.

In their experiments, the researchers used genetically modified mice, which overexpress an enzyme (PTG) resulting in increased liver glycogen.

Not only did these animals reduce their food intake when fed a high fat diet, they also did not develop the typical glucose intolerance, elevated insulin levels and fatty liver seen in normal mice on this diet.

Apart from losing weight (associated with lower leptin levels), these animals also had lower expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and higher expression of propiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus.

Thus, the authors summarize their findings as follows:

:…liver glycogen accumulation caused a reduced food intake, protected against the deleterious effects of a HFD and diminished the metabolic impact of fasting. Therefore, we propose that hepatic glycogen content be considered a potential target for the pharmacological manipulation of diabetes and obesity.”

As a number of compounds exist that may do exactly that, these studies may point to a novel pathway for the pharmacological treatment of obesity – but let’s keep in mind that the road from finding in mice to effective treatments in humans is a long and thorny road.

@DrSharma
Edmonton, AB

ResearchBlogging.orgLópez-Soldado I, Zafra D, Duran J, Adrover A, Calbó J, & Guinovart JJ (2014). Liver glycogen reduces food intake and attenuates obesity in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model. Diabetes PMID: 25277398

 

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Friday, October 24, 2014

Social Network Analysis of the Obesity Research Boot Camp

bootcamp_pin_finalRegular readers may recall that for the past nine years, I have had the privilege and pleasure of serving as faculty of the Canadian Obesity Network’s annual Obesity Research Summer Bootcamp.

The camp is open to a select group of graduate and post-graduate trainees from a wide range of disciplines with an interest in obesity research. Over nine days, the trainees are mentored and have a chance to learn about obesity research in areas ranging from basic science to epidemiology and childhood obesity to health policy.

Now, a formal network analysis of bootcamp attendees, published by Jenny Godley and colleagues in the Journal of Interdisciplinary Healthcare, documents the substantial impact that this camp has on the careers of the trainees.

As the analysis of trainees who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006-2010) shows, camp attendance had a profound positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships.

Thus, both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in obesity researcher (and possibly beyond).

Personally, participation at this camp has been one of the most rewarding experiences of my career and I look forward to continuing this annual exercise for years to come.

To apply for the 2015 Bootcamp, which is also open to international trainees – click here.

@DrSharma
Toronto, ON

ResearchBlogging.orgGodley J, Glenn NM, Sharma AM, & Spence JC (2014). Networks of trainees: examining the effects of attending an interdisciplinary research training camp on the careers of new obesity scholars. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 7, 459-70 PMID: 25336965

 

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Monday, September 29, 2014

Does Lean Tissue Have More To Say About Your Health Than Your Body Fat?

Carla Prado, PhD,  Assistant Professor and CAIP Chair in Nutrition, Food and Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Carla Prado, PhD, Assistant Professor and CAIP Chair in Nutrition, Food and Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

The common assumption is that people with more body fat are at greater risk for illness and overall mortality.

Surprisingly, an increasingly robust body of evidence now suggests that how much lean tissue you have may be far more important for your health than the amount of body fat.

This evidence as well as the methodologies used to study lean body mass are discusses in a paper by Carla Prado (University of Alberta) and Steve Heymsfield (Pennington Biomedical Research Center), in a paper published in the Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

As the authors point out,

“The emerging use of imaging techniques such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting have highlighted the importance of lean soft tissue (LST) as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality.

The paper discusses in depth the advantages and limitation of the many methods that can be used to assess body composition in research and clinical settings.

The paper also discusses the current definition and importance of sarcopenic obesity and notes that,

“The identification of different body composition phenotypes suggests that individuals have different metabolism and hence utilization of fuel sources.”

Thus,

“It is clear from emerging studies that body composition health will be vital in treatment decisions, prognostic outcomes, and quality of life in several nonclinical and clinical states.”

My guess is that it will not just be the absolute or relative amount of lean tissue mass that is important. Rather, similar to the increasingly recognised role of differences amongst fat depots, I would assume that different lean soft tissue depots may well play different roles in metabolic health.

@DrSharma
Charlottetown, PEI

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Friday, August 29, 2014

2014 Scopinaro Lecture

Nicola Scopinaro, MD, Professor of Surgery, University of Genoa Medical School, Italy

Nicola Scopinaro, MD, Professor of Surgery, University of Genoa Medical School, Italy

This morning, at the XIX World Congress of the International Federation of Surgery for Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO2014), I have the great honour of presenting the 2014 Scopinaro Lecture.

This lecture is named after Nicola Scopinaro, who in 1976 performed the first biliopancreatic diversion for the treatment of obesity.

The Scopinaro Lecture is the highest recognition for a non-surgeon to be awarded by IFSO.

In thinking about what to present, I settled on discussing the topic of whether or not obesity is a disease. Looking back over the work that I have done over the past 25 years, I came to realise that the issue of why some people with excess weight develop health problems and others don’t, has indeed fascinated me for a long time.

Initially, this interest was focussed on trying to understand why some people with obesity develop high blood pressure and others don’t. We were indeed able to show that part of this may be explained by differences in the expression of hormones involved in blood pressure regulation from fat tissue.

More recently, as many regular readers are well aware, I have broadened this interest in describing the limitations of BMI and advocating for a clinical staging system that classifies overweight and obese individuals based on how “sick” they are rather than how “big” they are.

Clearly, this work is of considerable interest to those involved in bariatric care (including bariatric surgeons), as it provides a framework for better prioritizing and assessing risk/benefit ratios than BMI or other anthropometric measures alone.

As I point out in my talk,

– The etiology of obesity is complex and multifactorial.

– The physiology of energy regulation is complex and subverts volitional attempts at weight loss.

– Access to obesity prevention and treatments must be driven by the recognised medical needs to address this condition.

– Multidisciplinary management of this life-long disorder requires resources similar to those required for other chronic diseases

In receiving this honour, I am fully aware that all of my work stands on the shoulders of the many researchers and clinicians who came before me and the considerable support and help that I have been fortunate enough to receive from my many students, trainees, colleagues and supervisors.

This award will certainly serve an a strong incentive to continue my work and advocacy for better treatments for obesity and the advancement of bariatric care.

@DrSharma
Montreal, QC

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Thursday, August 28, 2014

Call For Abstracts: Canadian Obesity Summit, Toronto, April 28-May 2, 2015

COS2015 toronto callBuilding on the resounding success of Kananaskis, Montreal and Vancouver, the biennial Canadian Obesity Summit is now setting its sights on Toronto.

If you have a professional interest in obesity, it’s your #1 destination for learning, sharing and networking with experts from across Canada around the world.

In 2015, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON-RCO) and the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons (CABPS) are combining resources to hold their scientific meetings under one roof.

The 4th Canadian Obesity Summit (#COS2015) will provide the latest information on obesity research, prevention and management to scientists, health care practitioners, policy makers, partner organizations and industry stakeholders working to reduce the social, mental and physical burden of obesity on Canadians.

The COS 2015 program will include plenary presentations, original scientific oral and poster presentations, interactive workshops and a large exhibit hall. Most importantly, COS 2015 will provide ample opportunity for networking and knowledge exchange for anyone with a professional interest in this field.

Abstract submission is now open – click here

Key Dates

  • Notification of abstract review: January 8, 2015
  • Call for late breaking abstracts open: Jan 12-30, 2015
  • Notification of late breaking abstracts and handouts and slides due : Feb 27, 2015
  • Early registration deadline: March 3, 2015

For exhibitor and sponsorship information – click here

To join the Canadian Obesity Network – click here

I look forward to seeing you in Toronto next year!

@DrSharma
Montreal, QC

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In The News

Diabetics in most need of bariatric surgery, university study finds

Oct. 18, 2013 – Ottawa Citizen: "Encouraging more men to consider bariatric surgery is also important, since it's the best treatment and can stop diabetic patients from needing insulin, said Dr. Arya Sharma, chair in obesity research and management at the University of Alberta." Read article

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